The kidneys are two brownish-red structures, one on each side of the body, located in the back of the abdomen below the ribs. They have the shape of a lime bean, but each kidney is about the size of your fist. The kidneys are connected to long, hollow tubes called ureters, which connect with the bladder. The bladder is located in the front of the abdomen, way low clown.

The job of the kidneys is to filter out waste products from the blood, to keep in substances that are important so to the body, and to manufacture urine. To show how to filter something, you can go into the kitchen and try this experiment. First take an ordinary empty glass and cover it over with a paper napkin. Then take another glass and put some water in it. Next sprinkle some black pepper into the water. Now slowly pour the pepper water onto the paper napkin and let it leak into the empty glass below. You will see clear water dripping down fro the bottom of the paper napkin into the glass, and on top of the paper napkin you will see the pepper. The paper napkin has acted as a filter. It allowed water to pass through, but it held back the pepper.

The kidneys are clever about what they do, because they don’t allow nourishing substances, such as sugar certain proteins and fats, to be filtered out, but they do make such wastes as urea and extra salt and some chemicals pass into the urine. Practically all of the blood we have our bodies eventually reaches the kidneys.

From the blood, the kidneys take a certain amount of water and waste materials and manufacture urine. The urine drips down through the ureters, which are located along the back part of the abdomen, into the blade A grown-up’s kidneys will make about six full glasses of urine a (lay, t a child’s make much less, accord to his or her age and size.

When enough urine collects in the bladder we get an urge to urinate, and pass the urine out of our bodies rough a tube called the urethra. The urethra in boys empties through the penis. In girls the urethra empties through its own opening just above the vagina.

The Kidneys, two large, bean-shaped organs, located In the back part of the abdomen, filter waste products from the blood and manufacture urine. The urine passes from the kidneys down through a ureter, and into the bladder.

Blood entering the kidney through the renal artery passes into tiny blood vessels in the glomerulus, where the waste products and water that make up urine are filtered out. The urine then passes through the tubules, into the calyx of the kidney, and into the ureter.

For some peculiar reason, children sometimes allow their bladders to get too full before they pass their urine. Once in a while, they discover that more is inside than they think, and bingo!, there is an accident. One or two accidents and a child learns that it is always a good idea to empty his bladder in good time, especially before he might be going someplace where there might not be a toilet handy.

Every child should go to the bathroom before going to school or before taking a long ride. This way it will not be necessary to leave the classroom so often. And who wants to stop the car unnecessarily just because a child has forgotten to empty his bladder before going for a ride?

Doctors can learn some important things about a child’s health just by examining his urine. This is why every child should have a urine analysis clone every year. Urine examination can tell a good deal about whether the kidneys are working properly. If they are allowing the wrong substances to filter out into the urine, then something must be wrong with the kidneys. If sugar is allowed to pass into the urine, it may mean that the child has diabetes.

Normal urine is perfectly clean and contains no germs. As a matter of fact, in some primitive places in the world where there are very few doctors-as in some parts of Eskimo territory and in some jungle areas in Africa-the people used to use urine as an antiseptic to kill germs. Of course, if they had alcohol or another antiseptic medicine, they used that instead.

When we have a kidney infection, or an infection of the bladder, examination of the urine will show germs. In that case, the people in the laboratory will find out exactly what kind of germs they are and what antibiotic medicines will kill them. Today, most kidney and bladder infections can be cleared up within a few days without much trouble.

To keep the kidneys in good order, everybody should drink plenty of water and milk and fruit juices. A grown-up should drink at least eight glasses of fluids a day, and a child about half that amount. Then the filtering system of the kidneys will work at its best. If we drink too little, we might not get rid of enough waste materials and we might not pass enough urine. Also, if we drink too little, the urine might give us a burning sensation as it leaves the body

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